The Horsehead Nebula or Barnard 33 (B33), is a cloud of cold and dark gas, which stands out against a bright gas cloud called IC 434. It is located about 1000 light-years from Earth, south of the far left of the Orion Belt.
The bright area at its upper left is a young star still wrapped in gas and dust. The radiations of this young star next to that of another massive one outside the Hubble box shape the nebula. The atypical form of Cabeza de Caballo was first discovered on a photographic plate at the end of the 19th century.
Dark nebulae are clouds of gas and cold dust that do not emit visible light, although they do emit radiation at other frequencies, mainly at radio frequencies. Emission nebulas are also observed near Zeta Orionis, which are clouds with less dust, but heated at temperatures close to 10,000 degrees by nearby stars. The gas at these temperatures emits light in the visible channel and the ultraviolet. There are also reflection nebulas in the area, which are clouds at temperatures between -100 and 500 degrees Celsius that emit light in the infrared and only reflect the visible light of nearby stars.
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